Mongol Empire

One of the largest empires known in human history is the Mongol Empire which found its limits from Korea to Ukraine and from Siberia to Southern China. Before acquiring its status in the 12th century C.E. the land was inhabited by turkish and mongol pasters who kept sheep, camels and cultivated the land. With the time they moved from one place to the other, though not so far. What is extraordinary about this period is that nomadic women held special authority: they ruled these migrations and were occupied with cultivation and housekeeping, while men were occupied with hunting most of the time.

  Hence, the life was not easy as all the nomadic tribes fought each other. The big change came with the birth of Tamajan, who was from an aristocrat family, but he rose in poverty. In a quick period of time he was able to grow to power. Unlike all the others before him, he rewarded his soldiers based on their contributions to the army and gave them various authorities. But the key to success was in his other step: he joined nomadic scatterers with his soldiers so that they couldn’t protest against him. He enlarged his territories and united almost all existing tribes: he is mostly known as Chinggis Khan.


Chinggis Khan and his supporters believed him to conquer the whole world in the name of gods. Any tribe that resisted the Mongol empire was considered to resist the gods, and for this they had to die. Under his rule this empire stretched to the Eastern Islamic lands. After his death this “divine mandate” passed to is family and his children continued conquering lands, winning even European armies in 1241. But the mongols didn’t destroy others’ cultures and they let other religions flourish only if the leaders prayed for them. They forcibly sent all the talented architects, sculptors across Asia to continue their work. The most valuable thing in the empire was ‘gold brocade’ which covered all the rulers and their horses. The economy grew due to the ‘silk road’. And the battle for big lands seemed to continue, but family members couldn’t resist the temptation of keeping the leadership: struggle emerged among brothers and sisters, uncles and cousins. By the 1260s Chinggis Khan’s grandsons were in a full civil war over the throne and as a result the empire was separated into four fragments: in China Khubai Khan captured the power and developed science and culture, in Iran Alchaneit seized the power and enriched the country with marvellous monuments, in Central Asia Timour and his descendant Babour flourished mongol empire in India. And the last dynasty was formed in Iraq, Asia Minor and Turkistan.

Mongol Empire lasted for a short period of time, but they left a giant heritage to the whole world. 

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